In Python, you can specify a directory path using a string that represents the absolute or relative path to the directory. There are two types of path representations: absolute and relative.
- Absolute path:
An absolute path is a complete path that specifies the full location of a file or directory on the file system. An absolute path starts with the root directory on the file system, which is represented by a forward slash (
/) on Unix-based systems or a drive letter followed by a colon (
C:) on Windows systems. Here’s an example of an absolute path:
path = '/Users/myuser/myproject/data/'
In this example, we specify an absolute path to a directory called
data in the
myproject directory, which is located in the home directory of the user
myuser on a Unix-based system.
- Relative path:
A relative path specifies the location of a file or directory relative to the current working directory of your Python script. A relative path does not start with a forward slash (
/) or a drive letter (
C:), but rather with a directory name or a period (
.) to represent the current directory. Here’s an example of a relative path:
path = 'data/'
In this example, we specify a relative path to a directory called
data located in the same directory as our Python script.
Note that you can use the
os.path module to manipulate and join paths in a platform-independent way. For example, to join a directory path and a file name, you can use the
import os dir_path = '/Users/myuser/myproject/data' file_name = 'myfile.txt' file_path = os.path.join(dir_path, file_name)
In this example, we use the
os.path.join() function to join the
file_name variables into a single file path that is platform-independent.